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Teens: Birth Rate Down, but Support Needs Growing

There’s a “good news” story making the rounds of media outlets this past week:  the teen pregnancy rate in Canada is declining faster than rates in the US, Britain and Sweden, according to a study from the Sex Information and Education Council of Canada.  Using data from Statistics Canada, the Sex Information Council determined that Canada’s teen birth and abortion rates decreased by nearly 37% between 1996 and 2006.  In BC, teen pregnancies decreased by 35% over the ten year period. Meanwhile the US saw a 25% drop, Britain a decrease of almost 5%, and Sweden experienced a 19% increase in its teen pregnancy rate.

This decline in the number of births to teenagers in Canada is definitely good news, but what’s not such good news is that the support needs of teen parents are actually increasing, while available resources for these vulnerable families are steadily disappearing.   In BC in 2007, there were 1466 live births to mothers under 20, according to the Provincial Vital Statistics Agency.  As the teen parent population has decreased, attention — and resources — have become inadequate to address the increasingly complex risk factors of this smaller yet more vulnerable group of families. In BC, targeted services for Aboriginal young parents are almost non-existent although it is the one segment of the population where the teen birthrate continues to climb.

There are currently 41 Young Parent Programs in BC providing childcare,  life skills education,  and parenting education and support while young mothers finish their high school educations or upgrade their skills. According to a report commissioned by the BC Council for Families in 2004, “The support  needs of young parents, particularly the younger ones, are often so varied and intense that a great deal of sustained effort is needed simply to maintain a minimum level of stability in their lives. Support becomes crisis management.”

Yet as recently as April 9 of this year, the Times Colonist reported that two Vancouver Island daycares offering services to young parents will likely shut due to cuts to their provincial funding. “While the reduction may affect the extent to which they can provide enhanced supports — such as parenting skills — this decision should not impact the agency’s ability to deliver childcare services because they are receiving the same level of funding as any other provider,” the ministry said in a prepared statement.


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Substance Abuse

I. What is substance abuse?

First you take a drink, then the drink takes a drink,
then the drink takes you. – F. Scott Fitzgerald

In a recent study by the University of Michigan, 8th, 10th, and 12th graders across the country are continuing to show a gradual decline in the proportions reporting use of illicit drugs.

“The cumulative declines since recent peak levels of drug involvement in the mid-1990s are quite substantial, especially among the youngest students,” said U-M Distinguished Research Scientist Lloyd Johnston, the principal investigator of the MTF study.

The proportion of 8th graders reporting use of an illicit drug at least once in the 12 months prior to the survey (called annual prevalence) was 24 percent in 1996 but has fallen to 13 percent by 2007, a drop of nearly half. The decline has been less among 10th graders, from 39 percent to 28 percent between 1997 and 2007, and least among 12th graders, a decline from the recent peak of 42 percent in 1997 to 36 percent this year.

Among the substances abused are: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, opiates, “club drugs” (ecstasy, etc.). stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, prescription drugs, and steroids.

Drug and substance abuse among teenagers, is substantial. Among youth age 12 to 17, about 1.1 million meet the diagnostic criteria for dependence on drugs, and about 1 million are treated for alcohol dependency.

Confused About Substance Abuse Treatment Options for your Child?
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From the National Institute of Health:

From 2006 to 2007, the percentage of 8th graders reporting lifetime use of any illicit drug declined from 20.9% to 19.0%.
Reported past year use among 8th graders declined from 14.8% to 13.2%.
Past year prevalence has fallen by 44% among 8th graders since the peak year of 1996.
Past year prevalence has fallen 27% among 10th graders and 15% among 12th graders since the peak year of 1997.

In 2007, 15.4% of 12th graders reported using a prescription drug nonmedically within the past year2. Vicodin continues to be abused at unacceptably high levels. Attitudes toward substance abuse, often seen as harbingers of change in abuse rates, were mostly stable. However, among 8th graders, perceived risk of harm associated with MDMA decreased for the third year in a row. Attitudes towards using LSD also softened among 10th graders this year.

Between 2005 and 2007, past year abuse of MDMA increased among 12th graders from 3.0% to 4.5%; and between 2004 and 2007, past year abuse of MDMA increased among 10th graders from 2.4% to 3.5%.

The remaining statistically significant increases involved teen alcohol use. The percentage of 10th graders who had been drunk in the past year rose from 38.3 in 1998 to 40.9 in 1999. Also, the percentage of 8th graders having 5+ drinks during the 2 weeks prior to being surveyed increased from 13.7 in 1998 to 15.2 in 1999.

Teenagers at risk for substance abuse include those with a family history of substance abuse, who have low self-esteem, who feel hopelessly alienated, as if they don’t fit in, or who are depressed.

II. What are the Symptoms of Teen Substance Abuse?

Symptoms of Teen Substance abuse include the following:

  • Sudden personality changes that include abrupt changes
    in work or school attendance, quality of work, work output, grades, discipline
  • Unusual flare-ups or outbreaks of temper
  • Withdrawal from responsibility
  • General changes in overall attitude
  • Loss of interest in what were once favorite hobbies and pursuits
  • Changes in friends and reluctance to have friends visit or talk about them
  • Difficulty in concentration, paying attention
  • Sudden jitteriness, nervousness, or aggression
  • Increased secretiveness
  • Deterioration of physical appearance and grooming
  • Wearing of sunglasses at inappropriate times
  • Continual wearing of long-sleeved garments particularly in hot weather or reluctance to wear short-sleeved attire when appropriate
  • Association with known substance abusers
  • Unusual borrowing of money from friends, co-workers or parents
  • Stealing small items from employer, home or school
  • Secretive behavior regarding actions and possessions; poorly concealed attempts to avoid attention and suspicion such as frequent trips to storage rooms, restroom, basement, etc.

Different substances lend themselves to different groups of symptoms. The most glaring symptom in all cases is a change, sometimes a radical one, in behavior.

Other physical signs of substance abuse are: slurred speech,
memory impairment, incoordination, and impairment of attention.

III. How is Substance Abuse diagnosed?

It is sometimes difficult for mental health practitioners to arrive at a diagnosis of substance abuse alone. There are a number of practical and empirical methods to determine substance use, among them being urine or blood testing. Another method to determine use is by interviewing parents, teachers, and other caregivers regarding the history of the patient, and the current behavioral aspects that the patient has been presenting.

A major problem in the diagnosis is the consideration of dual diagnoses. A dual diagnosis is given to any person who has both a substance abuse problem and an emotional or psychiatric disorder. In order for the patient to fully recover, they must be treated for both problems. According to statistics, at least thirty-seven percent of substance abusers also have a serious mental illness, and conversely, of all those diagnosed with a mental illness, twenty-nine percent also abuse either drugs or alcohol.

The most common co-occurrences are depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and personality disorders. But any of the emotional disorders: ADHD, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome can lead its sufferers down the path of self-medication and substance abuse.

There are three categories of substance abuse:

A. Use: The occasional use of alcohol or other drugs without developing tolerance or withdrawal symptoms when not in use.

B. Abuse: The continued use of alcohol or other drugs even while knowing that the continued use is creating problems socially, physically, or psychologically.

C. Dependence: At least three of the following factors must be present:
a. Substance is taken in larger amounts or over longer periods of time than the person intended.
b. A persistent desire with unsuccessful efforts to
control the use.
c. Large periods of time spent obtaining, taking, or recovering from, the substance.
d. Frequent periods of intoxication or detoxification especially when social and major role obligations are expected (school, social situations, etc.)
e. Continued use even while knowing that the continued use is creating problems socially, physically, and/or psychologically.
f. Increased tolerance
g. Withdrawal symptoms
h. Substance taken to relieve withdrawal symptoms.

IV. How is Teen Substance Abuse Treated?

In cases of dual diagnosis, the recommended method is to primarily treat the symptomatic substance abuse and co-treat the disorder. Once stabilization is established, the full-fledged treatment for the mental disorder begins.

There are various factors that must be taken into account when considering treatment for substance abuse. Among these factors are:

  1. Age, developmental stage, and maturity
  2. Values and culture
  3. Gender
  4. Co-existing mental disorders. Without the correct treatment for the co-existing disorders, treatment for addition may not be effective because these disorders could interfere with the patient’s ability to successfully participate in an addiction treatment program
  5. Family Factors: Family factors that could increase the patient’s risks should be considered: it is considered important that parents and other family members play a large role in their family member’s treatment.

Organic syndromes may be a result of substance abuse, or independent of substance abuse.
A. Medication:
Medication varies with the manner of addiction. If a dual or
co-occurring diagnosis is made, medication is administered according to the co-existing disorder. Medications are given
along with other interventions. Medications that specifically treat substance abuse are:

  1. Naltrexone: alcohol dependency and opiate dependency
  2. Methadone: heroine addiction
  3. Wellbutrin: smoking and marijuana abuse

In order to begin treatment, the first thing the patient must do is detoxify. Detoxification can be done on an outpatient or inpatient basis, depending on the severity of the addiction.

Additional Methods of Substance Abuse Treatment After Detoxification:

  1. Identify underlying co-occurring disorders and treat disorders
  2. Psychotherapy
  3. 12-Step type programs like Alcoholics Anonymous
  4. Group Therapy
  5. Behavior Modification
  6. Cognitive Therapy
  7. Residential Treatment

V. I suspect that my child is abusing substances.
What do I do now?

Professionals to Seek Out

  1. See your physician or pediatrician
  2. Consult with your clergy to assist in spiritual
    and practical guidance
  3. Consult with an educational consultant to help
    you find the right program for your child.
  4. Consult with a therapist or counselor.
  5. Consult with an Educational Advocate to help
    you with your current school situation
  6. Consult with an Educational Consultant to find
    the right program for your child.

Find out more about Educational Consultants


  1. Inpatient: hospitalization
  2. Outpatient Treatment
    Patients must be seen regularly so drug or alcohol abuse
    can be monitored. Some patients combine outpatient treatment with a 12-step type program. Frequent drug testing is done. In addition, outpatient treatment may include outpatient detoxification, and alcohol or drug rehabilitation.
  3. Day Treatment
  4. Residential Treatment Center or Program

a. Therapeutic Boarding School
These schools are usually fully accredited schools with emotional growth programs. They stress holistic education: growth of the person through holding children responsible for their actions. There is no rehabilitation or physicians on staff.
Find out more about Residential Boarding Schools

b. Wilderness Therapy Program
A Therapeutic Wilderness program does not necessarily have academics; their goal can be to introduce the children to a different role. These programs use Outdoor Therapy to help build low self-esteem. They make obtainable goals for them to reach. The programs vary but they are about 6 to 8 weeks long. It is a very structured program with a goal of teaching the children coping skills and raising their self esteem. Children go from this program to mainstream back into their public school or attend a small structured boarding school.
Find out more about Therapeutic Wilderness Programs

c. Residential Treatment School
A Residential Treatment Program or School provides a full professional staff that includes therapists, psychologists, and psychiatrists. They also have a small academic program. Many of the children in the program have been recommended there by mental health agencies that make the placements. It is a highly structured environment whose emphasis is on treatment and learning coping skills and independent living. Chemical dependence education and rehabilitation is also provided. Outdoor therapy is sometimes used to facilitate building social skills and self-esteem. Recovery programs are also available. Residential Treatment schools are secure schools.

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Tattoos During Pregnancy

Once thought of as something only for bikers, rebellious teenagers or servicemen, tattoos have become quite fashionable and more accepted in all ages and sexes. Men, women, moms, dads, teens and grandmas can all be found sporting butterflies, barbed wire bracelets, inspirational sayings, their children’s names and other artsy designs from their ankles to their necks – and anywhere in between!

But what about pregnant women? If you’ve always wanted a tattoo, or want to add one to commemorate this special time in your life, is now the best time to do it?

A Risky Behavior? “There are not any more risks when getting a tattoo when pregnant than getting a tattoo when not,” says Myrna L. Armstrong, professor and regional dean at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing. “Currently, there is not any information or research that shows the tattoo pigment interferes with a pregnancy, yet there is very little research to support either side.”

While there is not much research on the subject, Dr. Joel Schlessinger, a dermatologist, general cosmetic surgeon, past president of the American Society of Cosmetic Dermatology and Aesthetic Surgery and president of, does not feel pregnant women should consider getting a tattoo. “Even in the best of situations, obtaining a tattoo is a mixed bag of risks, but when you add a pregnancy, the cons far outweigh any potential benefits,” he says. “Tattoos are essentially nanoparticles that are unregulated and may contain foreign substances of dubious purity.”

Even in the best of situations, obtaining a tattoo is a mixed bag of risks.

Add onto that the potential for getting infected with hepatitis and HIV while getting a tattoo, and Dr. Schlessinger says you have a very serious problem on your hands, all while you are trying to keep your baby safe. “Doctors such as myself are absolutely scrupulous to avoid any potential procedure and/or medication while pregnant in order to make sure the baby has every chance to be safe,” he says. “Why mess with luck and have a procedure that is clearly not for the baby, but all about the mother and pass on any risk (however small or large) to the unborn baby? Not a good choice, in my opinion.”

Mario Barth, world-renowned celebrity tattoo artist and CEO and founder of Starlight Tattoo, would never consider tattooing an expecting mom. “When you’re pregnant your body is undergoing so many changes,” says Barth, who has Lenny Kravitz and Nikki Sixx of Motley Crue on his clientele list. “When you get tattooed you are putting a foreign object into your body and therefore your bloodstream, which goes directly to your baby and could cause potential harm. Excess ink will get distributed to your organs and blood, and as with any foreign object your body will try to fight it off. Your baby is so small – why would you cause it potential distress?”

John Reardon, author The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Getting a Tattoo (Alpha, 2008), says while he has not found any evidence that getting a tattoo while expecting can affect the pregnancy, he also would not tattoo a mom-to-be. “The main reason women should not get tattooed while pregnant is that there is a possibility of either infection or an allergic reaction,” he says. “It is rare, but does happen. Also, if the woman went to a tattoo shop that wasn’t clean, there is a risk of transmitting HIV or hepatitis. It is really hard to transmit these diseases with modern preparation techniques.”

Reardon also points out that certain people may be allergic to some colors, especially red. “This can cause a rash, which can spread through the body,” he says. “Many people are allergic to petroleum-based products such as Vaseline, Bacitracin or A&D ointment. This reaction is characterized by lots of little pimples, which usually itch, around the tattooed area. It can also spread to other parts of the body.”

Another consideration is possible problems during labor with anesthesia. “A pregnant woman with a tattoo on the lower back should be aware that some physicians might not administer anesthesia via an epidural through the lower back if there is a tattoo,” Armstrong says. One theory behind this is that there’s a possibility particles of ink could travel through the epidural needle into the spine during the procedure; another suggests there is an increased risk of infection. There is, however, no conclusive evidence that tattoos and epidurals are a dangerous combination.

Selecting a TattooistThe pros and cons have been weighed, research done and you have decided that a tattoo is something you want to do during your pregnancy. The next step is to put safety first and foremost, and find the right tattoo shop and tattooist.

“A pregnant woman should take the usual safety precautions of getting a tattoo,” Armstrong says. She says to make sure of the following:

1. The studio is clean and uses the proper precautions and procedures in dealing with blood-borne contaminations.
2. The artist has knowledge about skin care, sterilization and anatomy.
3. That the needles have been sterilized properly or that disposable needles are new (with the old ones disposed of appropriately).
4. The artist wears gloves, uses a single unit of pigment with the excess pigment being disposed and uses pigment and dressings that are sterile.

Reardon suggests looking online for a reputable tattoo shop. “Myspace has thousands of tattooists with full portfolios and all the artist’s information,” he says. “You really need to see the work of the tattooist to be sure you won’t regret your tattoo. Ask someone you know who has a tattoo or knows someone who has lots of tattoos. The best way to be able to judge a tattooist’s ability is to see the work firsthand and fully healed. You will want to see if the lines are relatively straight and smooth (many customers jump or squirm while getting tattooed so it’s not always up to the artist); the shading or coloring will be strong and full, not spotty or faded; and the design will be drawn well. There shouldn’t be any scarring, where the tattoo will be raised up and lumpy. Also the tattoo shop should be clean.”

Armstrong recommends using word of mouth. “I would recommend that women talk to others about getting and having a tattoo, seek referrals for an artist, shop around for techniques and do their research,” she says.

Barth agrees. “Research on the Internet and check with the Better Business Bureau and local Health Department,” he says. “Also, ask a lot of questions and go with your gut. If it doesn’t feel right, then wait. A tattoo is for the rest of your life, so you can afford to wait.”

Tattoos 101 What is a tattoo, really? “A tattoo is pigment placed in the skin,” says Reardon. “If a tattoo is done correctly, the pigment will rest in the upper part of the dermis just below the epidermis. Some form of sharp object will be used to implant the pigment. Modern tattooing is done with sterilized needles and an electric tattoo machine. Many people still practice the traditional ways of tattooing from the South Pacific and Japan, which is done by hand.”

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Confronting the Myths of Single Parenting

The stigma attached to being a single parent is rising anew. Many media commentators blame America’s up-trend in violence and other social problems on family breakdown: on single parents. This stigma is based on myths and stereotypes that have been promoted by half-truths and often prejudiced viewpoints.

These myths can be confronted successfully and new strength can be found in the truth. As with so many aspects of single parenting, we rise to the challenge and become better people because of it. The myths are sometimes subtle and subconscious, but the more we examine them, the more clearly we take responsibility for our lives and the lives of our children.

Myth : Predominance of the traditional nuclear family.

Our cultural mythology has it that single parents are an aberration, not the norm. Single parents often feel isolated, alone, and different.

In the past twenty-five years, the number of single parent families has more than doubled. According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, 59% of United States children will live in a single parent home at least once during their minor years. That is a majority.

Over 16 million children currently live in single parent homes. More and more of these families can be defined as “binuclear” families, with both parents actively involved in parenting and creating two separate homes for their children. Divorce and remarriage, rather than the exception or aberration, are more and more common in families today.

Myth : Children in single-parent families always have deficits, do poorly in school, and suffer emotionally and behaviorally.

Limited data fueled Dan Quayle’s attack on Murphy Brown, mainly sourced from sociologist Barbara Whitehead. Her negative conclusions about the outcomes of children from single-parent families selectively ignored all the data that contradicted her position, according to several other researchers. (Richards and Smiege, 1993.)

The oft-quoted ten-year study of Judith S. Wallerstein used tainted search subjects “… drawn largely from children in treatment for psychological disorders or from the wards of the criminal justice system.” (Olsen and Haynes, 1993.) No wonder the outcomes were dismal ten years later.

Of course, statistical studies are never appropriate to predict outcomes:  single parent children are not doomed or reprieved from doom. Somehow we have this mythology, of their inherent disadvantage. This disadvantage does not exist.

Myth : Single parent families are “broken homes.”

In the television series, “Grace Under Fire,” a recent episode showed Grace, a single mom, protesting hotly, “My home is not a broken home. When I got a divorce, I fixed it!”Many single parents who divorced or didn’t marry made the healthiest choice in creating a peaceful and stable home for their family. Many well-researched studies document positive outcomes in single parent families. “Single parenting develops the parent’s independence and ability to handle a variety of situations.” (Shaw, 1991.) “Children benefit from increased levels of responsibility.” (Amata, 1987) “Parental and child health outcomes were related to larger networks of social support and good communication within the single parent family.” (Hanson, 1986.) A study by University of Michigan of over 6,000 adults had surprisingly positive conclusions for children of divorce.

Statistically it turned out that adult children of divorce were just as likely (43%) to be happily married as someone who grew up in a two-parent home. Perhaps confronting the reality of the fragility of marriage the adult children of divorce were more than twice as likely to be worried about the health of their marriage.

Myth: Children from single parent families have lower self-esteem.

A carefully controlled study (Nelson, 1993) found income level to be the deciding factor related to children’s self -esteem. Because single parent families aree often also a low income household, children’s self-esteem is likely to lower, just as in low income two-parent homes.

Parents need to be especially careful to emphasize to their children that who you are is not based on what you have. Modeling this unconditional self-esteem through self-respect and self-nurturance is the best way our children can absorb the self-esteem skills necessary to be resilient and successful citizens of the 21st century.

Myth : We should strive to be entirely self-sufficient.

The western myth of self-sufficiency has perpetuated much needless shame and guilt among the emotionally and financially challenged, single parents among them. Being able to give and receive are both necessary skills to bring the wider resources of the world to our families.

We live in an interdependent world. Being responsible for ourselves means getting healthy support and even professional help when we need it. We cannot depend on our children for social and psychological support; it is their place to receive our support.A support group of other single parents can serve your needs for emotional support, a social outlet, childcare, and fun. Volunteering as a family within the community can also create deep satisfaction.

Being aware of the balance between nurturing and being nurtured, independence and support creates for ourselves the middle ground where family takes place. Through this each family member is nurtured towards increasing maturity and independence.

By confronting the truth of our situation, assessing the true risks and opportunities, single parents can go beyond the cultural mythologies and reap great rewards. Being proactive with the truth wherever we find the myths surfacing will help transform the negativity out there to optimism about the future.

Loanda Cullen is a psychotherapist in Colorado. She leads workshops for single parents; teaches parenting classes; and single parents her fifteen year old son, Sean.

This article was reprinted with permission from Single Parenting in the Nineties. Copyright 1995 by Pilot Publishing. All rights reserved.

Timing of First Sex Has Far-Reaching Relationship Effects

Research looking at how the timing of sexual initiation in adolescence impacts adult romantic ties finds that having sex later may lead to better relationships.

In a new study, Dr. Paige Harden, a psychological scientist, investigated how the timing of sexual initiation in adolescence influences romantic outcomes — such as whether people get married or live with their partners, how many romantic partners they’ve had, and whether they’re satisfied with their relationship — later in adulthood.

To answer this question, Harden and colleagues from the University of Texas at Austin used data from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health to look at 1659 same-sex sibling pairs who were followed from adolescence (around 16) to young adulthood (around 29).

Each sibling was classified as having an Early (younger than 15), On-Time (age 15-19), or Late (older than 19) first experience with sexual intercourse.

Harden’s findings are reported in a new research article published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

As expected, later timing of first sexual experience was associated with higher educational attainment and higher household income in adulthood when compared with the Early and On-Time groups.

Individuals who had a later first sexual experience were also less likely to be married and they had fewer romantic partners in adulthood.

Among the participants who were married or living with a partner, later sexual initiation was associated with significantly lower levels of relationship dissatisfaction in adulthood.

Researchers found that these associations with a later sex experience were not changed when genetic and environmental factors were taken into account. Furthermore, the associations could not be explained by differences in adult educational attainment, income, or religiousness, or by adolescent differences in dating involvement, body mass index, or attractiveness.

Experts believe the results suggest that the timing of first experience with sexual intercourse predicts the quality and stability of romantic relationships in young adulthood.

Although investigators have often focused on the consequences of early sexual activity, the Early and On-Time participants in this study were largely indistinguishable.

Researchers say the data suggests early initiation is not a “risk” factor so much as late initiation is a “protective” factor in shaping romantic outcomes.

According to Harden, there are several possible mechanisms that might explain this relationship.

It’s possible, for example, that people who have their first sexual encounter later also have certain characteristics (e.g., secure attachment style) that have downstream effects on both sexual delay and on relationship quality.

They could be pickier in choosing romantic and sexual partners, resulting in a reluctance to enter into intimate relationships unless they are very satisfying.

It’s also possible, however, that people who have their first sexual encounter later have different experiences, avoiding early encounters with relational aggression or victimization that would otherwise have detrimental effects on later romantic outcomes.

Finally, Harden said that it’s possible that “individuals who first navigate intimate relationships in young adulthood, after they have accrued cognitive and emotional maturity, may learn more effective relationship skills than individuals who first learn scripts for intimate relationships while they are still teenagers.”

Experts say that additional research is needed to help to tease apart which of these mechanisms may actually be at work in driving the association between timing of first sexual intercourse and later romantic outcomes.

Prior studies by Harden and her colleagues have provided evidence that earlier sexual intercourse isn’t always associated with negative outcomes.

For example, using the same sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, she found that teenagers who experienced their first sexual intercourse earlier, particularly those who had sex in a romantic dating relationship, had lower levels of delinquent behavior problems.

She said, “We are just beginning to understand how adolescents’ sexual experiences influence their future development and relationships.”

Article by: Rick Nauert PhD

Cost of care for children can exceed university tuition

Daycare prices in Metro Vancouver have risen so high that the cost of four years of early-childhood care can exceed that of a four-year university degree. A typical family in Vancouver with a child in full-time care from the end of parental leave to the beginning of kindergarten can expect to pay somewhere in the neighbourhood of $50,000 for child care. By contrast, a four-year undergraduate arts degree at the University of B.C. costs about $31,000, including tuition, student fees and books.


To Stop Violence, Start at Home

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THE pattern is striking. Men who are eventually arrested for violent acts often began wi th attacks against their girlfriends and wives. In many cases, the charges of domestic violence were not taken seriously or were dismissed.

Before Tamerlan Tsarnaev was suspected of carrying out the bombing of the Boston Marathon, he was arrested for beating his girlfriend. When Man Haron Monis held 17 people hostage at a Lindt Chocolate cafe in Sydney, he had already been charged as an accessory to the murder of his ex-wife. Before George Zimmerman shot Trayvon Martin to death in Florida, his ex-girlfriend accused him of physically assaulting her. He faced no charges, but has been arrested twice for alleged domestic violence since 2013.

A recent study found that more than half of the 110 mass shootings in the United States between January 2009 and July 2014 included the murder of a current or former spouse, an intimate partner or a family member.Everytown for Gun Safety, the group that released the study, found a “noteworthy connection between mass-shooting incidents and domestic or family violence.”

This connection is not limited to mass shootings. An analysis of the criminal justice history of hundreds of thousands of offenders in Washington State suggests that a felony domestic violence conviction is the single greatest predictor of future violent crime among men.

With so much at stake, responding to violence against women should be a top priority for everyone. Research tells us that violence is a learned behavior.

Boys who grow up in homes with abuse and domestic violence are nearly four times more likely to perpetrate domestic violence than those who grow up in homes without it. Because violence in the home tends to be a child’s first experience of it and is often defended as either inevitable or trivial, it becomes the root and justifier of all violence.

Men who commit violence rehearse and perfect it against their families first. Women and children are target practice, and the home is the training ground for these men’s later actions.

By intervening early and stopping violence in the home, we ensure the safety of the women and children who are the first victims. We can also take steps to make it harder for perpetrators to go on to commit additional crimes, whether inside or outside the home. We could, for instance, decide that anyone who committed domestic violence could not buy or own a gun. Yet in 35 states, those convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence crimes and those subject to restraining orders can buy and carry guns. Closing these and other gaps in federal and state laws on domestic violence will save women’s lives, and by extension, many more.

And yet keeping guns out of the hands of domestic violence perpetrators is only a small part of the solution. Preventing assaults at home from happening in the first place is the key to ensuring the safety of our communities and the security of our nation.

And while some consider that problem simply too big to tackle, the truth is that we know where to look for solutions. In their landmark study published in the American Political Science Review in 2012, Mala Htun and S. Laurel Weldon looked at 70 countries over four decades to examine the most effective way to reduce violence against women. They found that the mobilization of strong, independent feminist movements was a more important force in reducing violence against women than the economic wealth of a nation, the representation of women in government or the presence of progressive political parties. Strong and thriving feminist movements help to shape public and government agendas and create the political will to address violence against women.

As activists, we see this every day. The hundreds of feminist organizations that work on this issue around this country are the best chance we have of ending the epidemic of private violence, and therefore the epidemic of public violence.

There are many small grass-roots groups that go after private and public violence at their common root. Among them are A Long Walk Home(founded by one of us), which uses art to empower young people to end violence against girls and women; A Call to Men, which mobilizes men to stand up to violence by other boys and men; and Tewa Women United, which unites indigenous women to heal and transform their communities.

Safe and democratic families are the key to ensuring safe and democratic communities. Until women are safe in the home, none of us will be safe outside the home.

My Brother Was The Last Person You’d Picture With A Needle In His Arm




Editor’s note: The following is an excerpt from the upcoming book “Generation Rx: A Story of Dope, Death, And America’s Opiate Crisis” by Erin Marie Daly, a former legal journalist.
Daly’s 20-year-old brother died of a heroin overdose after getting hooked on painkillers. To research her book, she talked to others whose loved ones died after moving from prescription pills to heroin.

Erin Marie Daly and her brother, Pat
Erin Marie Daly and her brother, Pat

George, a funeral home director in Brockton, Massachusetts, watched as the formaldehyde pulsed its way into the body lying before him on the porcelain embalming table. It was a task that was normally just part of a day’s work, but today, George was overwhelmed by emotion. He slid down to the floor, sobbing, and gripped the hand of the body on the table, willing it to come back to life.

The hand belonged to his 22-year-old son, Lance.

The night before, just after the Boston Red Sox lost to the New York Yankees, George had climbed the stairs to Lance’s bedroom in the home that also houses George’s funeral business. Lance was kneeling on the floor against a chair, with his head slumped forward onto his chest. It looked like he was praying. But he was stiff and unnaturally still. A needle lay by his feet. Heroin had stopped his heart.

It was a twisted ending for the son of a funeral director, but unfortunately, it was hardly surprising. Like many young adults in the working- class Boston suburb, Lance’s heroin addiction began when he became hooked on the powerful prescription painkiller OxyContin. An opioid medication originally developed to treat patients suffering from debilitating pain, the drug has become popular among local kids who crush the pills and snort, smoke, or even inject them for a heroin-like high. When the pills become too expensive, they are increasingly turning to heroin itself.

George, for his part, had seen dozens of such cases come across his embalming table in recent years—the sons and daughters of good parents who thought heroin was something only “junkies” did. And even though he was well aware of Lance’s years-long struggle with opiate addiction—at one especially exasperated moment, telling his son that he was saving a casket for him—a junkie’s death wasn’t what he had in mind for Lance.

Despite years of addiction and lies and close calls, he never thought it would be his son.

I met George in the summer of 2010 after reading about his story in a newspaper. I had traveled across the country from California with a story of my own: my youngest brother, Pat, was also addicted to OxyContin and died of a heroin overdose in February 2009, six months shy of his twenty-first birthday. I was seeking answers as a sister and as a journalist. Shortly after Pat’s death, I had started researching prescription painkiller addiction, and had started blogging about my findings. Privately, I also began researching my brother’s life, trying to piece together his downfall in an effort to understand where he went wrong.

Pat was my baby. I was ten years old when he was born, and he was the perfect addition to the pretend scenarios for which I had already bossily recruited my other younger brother and sister. And as babies are, he was incontrovertibly lovable.

Yet as much as I loved my brother, I could not understand his obsession with OxyContin. Nor did I know that it had put him straight on the path to heroin. I learned of the extent of his struggle too late. Also too late, I learned about the disease of addiction, and about the particular insidiousness of narcotic painkillers, all of which provide a heroin-like high when abused: not just OxyContin, but Vicodin, Opana, Darvocet, Fentanyl, Percocet, Dilaudid, Lortab, and Roxicodone, to name just a few (central nervous system depressants like Xanax, Ativan, Valium and Klonopin are also often abused due to their tranquilizing properties).

I learned that Pat wasn’t a special case; that kids just like him, all over the country, were falling victim to these pills: in 2010, 3,000 young adults ages 18 to 25 died of prescription drug overdoses—eight deaths per day.

Like Pat, many ended up turning to heroin after their pills became too expensive or scarce; in 2011, 4.2 million Americans aged 12 or older reported using heroin at least once in their lives, and nearly half of young IV heroin users reported that they abused prescription opioids first. Like these kids, my brother was the last person you’d picture with a needle in his arm, and yet they were all dying as junkies. I wanted to understand why this was happening, so I quit my job as a legal journalist and began traveling around the country in the hopes that chronicling the experiences of other families affected by the trend would offer some answers.

George was one of the first people I encountered. He told me the story about embalming his son as we sat in the receiving room of his funeral home, surrounded by the proverbial mementos of death: prayer cards, dried floral arrangements, a casket stuffed with billowy waves of satin. He choked up as he talked about Lance, and I choked up too, unable to maintain my reporter’s distance. It was my brother’s story all over again.

Credit: Copyright © 2014 by Erin Marie Daly from Generation Rx: A Story of Dope, Death, and America’s Opiate Crisis.

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